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Children Disease

What is Growth Faliure in Children:

Growth Faliure means growth rate that is below the appropriate growth velocity (speed) for age.

Sometimes a slow growth is a normal expression of a person's genetic potential. Normal growth is the result of several factors , eg. Nutrition, Genetics, and Hormones.

Possible Causes for Growth Failure in Children:

Familial short stature: Children with this condition have parents with short stature. They have a normal growth velocity, and bone age is not delayed. They enter puberty at a normal time and often complete growth with a short adult height.

Constitutional growth delay: Also called delayed puberty. Children with constitutional growth delay do not show growth failure but a period of slow growth velocity occurs during the first year of life and just before puberty.

Malnutrition: Worldwide, malnutrition is probably the most common cause of growth reduction. Nutritional deficiencies in developed countries are more often the result of self-restricted diets.

What is bedwetting:

Bedwetting or nocturnal enuresis is the involuntary passage of urine while asleep.

There are two types of bedwetting:

Primary bedwetting or enuresis: bedwetting since infancy. It is because delay in maturation of the nervous system. The children who suffer from bedwetting, their brains are un-able to recognize messages of nervous system sent by the full bladder.

Secondary bedwetting or enuresis: Developed after being continually dry for a minimum of six months. The common factors or the causes for secondary bedwetting are urinary tract infections, Diabetes mellitus, and spinal cord disorders.

Many parents and children are frustrated with bedwetting as it starts to interfere with self-esteem or social events.

What is Tonsillitis :

Acute tonsillitis is an infection of the tonsils caused by one of several possible types of bacteria or viruses. Acute tonsillitis is characterized by either the sudden or gradual onset of a sore throat which is usually associated with fever. The patient may stop swallowing saliva, complain of ear pain with swallowing, and have bad breath.

Tonsils and Adenoids:

The tonsils and adenoids are composed of tissues that are similar to the lymph nodes or glands found in the neck or other parts of the body.

What is the purpose of the tonsils and adenoids:

The tonsils and adenoids are to assist the body in its defense against incoming bacteria and viruses by helping the body form antibodies.

Musculo-skeletal Disease

About Neck Pain:

Neckpain or cervical pain is a very common medical condition. Neck pain can arise from different disorders of any tissues of neck eg.

Cervical spondylosis due to degenerative disc diseases, neck strain, whiplash, herniated disc, nerve injury, Torti-colis (acute or chronic).

Neck pain can also arise where the pathology is somewhere else (radiated pain), like angina, congestive headache, pain radiated from tooth etc.

Neck pain is commonly associated with dull aching or sharp shooting, it might worsened with movement of the neck. Other symptoms associated with some forms of neck pain include numbness, tingling, tenderness, sharp shooting pain, fullness, difficulty swallowing, pulsations, dizziness or lightheadedness, and gland swelling.

Complications if un-treated or mal-treated:

Acute muscular sprain is most of the time self-limiting. But sometimes recurrent attack of sprain might be a cause of mal-nutrition syndrome and continuous and improper usage of allopathic analgesics can cause Gastro-intestinal or Renal complications.

But neck pain arises from degenerative disc disease (cervical spondylosis), herniated disc or some specific nerve injury require a prompt medicinal and physical therapy help, otherwise the condition can take a chronic shape then traction, local injections anesthetic or steroidal injections might be required. But it has been seen that these medications and manipulations have only temporary relief. Problem comes into the original shape when the drug’s action is over and these medications have their own potent side effects if taken for long continuous time.

What is a frozen shoulder (Adhesive Capsulitis)?

A frozen shoulder is a disorder of the shoulder joint caused by inflammation, scarring, thickening, and shrinkage of the capsule that surrounds the shoulder joint with significant loss of its range of motion in all directions. The motion is limited when the patient attempts motion and when the doctor attempts to move the joint fully while the patient relaxes. Any injury to the shoulder can lead to frozen shoulder. Frozen shoulders occur more frequently in patients with diabetes, chronic inflammatory of the shoulder (rheumatoid or pyogenic arthritis), or after chest or breast surgery.

Complications if un-treated or mal-treated:

According to the present-day conventional treatment of frozen shoulder, pain-killer(analgesic or anti-inflammatory) medications (orally or local applications), aggressive cortisone injections (steroidal) are there, which most of the time give a short-term relief and having some potent side-effects of these medication if taken for long continuous period of time, like gastritis, gastric ulcers, renal failure etc. Sometimes, even with all these treatments, frozen shoulder can take a permanent shape and in that kind of condition release of scar tissue is done by surgical procedure under general anesthesia, but surgical procedure is always having the risk of breaking the bones, like humerus fracture.

What is Low-back Pain (LBP) or Lumbar Backache ?

When we stand, the lower back is functioning to support the weight of the upper body. When we bend, extend, or rotate at the waist, the lower back is involved in the movement. Therefore, injury to the structures important for weight bearing, such as the bony spine, muscles, tendons, and ligaments is the most frequent cause of Low-back pain or Lumbar backache. The common causes of Low-back Pain are – Lumbar strain (Acute or Chronic), Nerve irritation, Lumbar Radiculopathy (as in Sciatica, disc herniation), bony encroachment (Lumbar spondylosis , spondylisthesis, spinal stenosis),and different bone and joint conditions (as in osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, ankylosing spondylosis).

Complications if un-treated or mal-treated:

Conventional treatment for the low-back pain is very limited except for some analgesic (pain-killer) and anti-inflammatory treatment (steriodal or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAID]). These medicines are having only very short-term action; the diseases comes into the original shape or more aggravated shape once the action of the medication is over. Most of the time the disease pathology is prorgressing in its original pace and the patient does not feel pain due to action or pain killer medication. Continuous and regular consumption of steroidal and non-steriodal pain-killer medication can cause renal failure or chronic Gastro-intestinal dysfunction.

What is osteoarthritis?

Osteoarthritis is a most common type of degenerative arthritis that is caused by the breakdown and eventual loss of cartilage of one or more joints. Cartilage serves as a "cushion" between the bones of the joints. . Repetitive use of the worn joints over the years can irritate and inflame the cartilage, causing joint pain and swelling. Loss of the cartilage cushion causes friction between the bones, leading to pain and limitation of joint mobility. Inflammation of the cartilage can also stimulate new bone outgrowths (spurs, also referred to as osteophytes) to form around the joints

Osteoarthritis commonly affects the hands, feet, spine, and large weight-bearing joints, such as the hips and knees. Osteoarthritis is mostly related to aging.

Conditions that can lead to secondary osteoarthritis include obesity, repeated trauma or surgery to joint structures, abnormal joints at birth (congenital abnormalities), gout, diabetes, and other hormone disorders.

The most common symptom of osteoarthritis is pain in the affected joint(s) after repetitive use. Joint pain is usually worse later in the day. There can be swelling, warmth, and creaking of the affected joints. Pain and stiffness of the joints can also occur after long periods of inactivity. In severe osteoarthritis, complete loss of the cartilage cushion causes friction between bones, causing pain at rest or pain with limited motion.

Complications if un-treated or mal-treated:

Severe osteoarthritis of the knee is one of the most common reasons for total knee replacement. Osteoarthritis of the cervical spine or lumbar spine causes pain in the neck or low back. Bony spurs, called osteophytes, that form along the arthritic spine can irritate spinal nerves, causing severe pain, numbness, and tingling of the affected parts of the body.

Osteoarthritis causes the formation of hard, bony enlargements of the small joints of the fingers called Heberden’s Nodule and Bouchard's nodule, these nodules are very painful and associated with limitation of movements of joints.

Taking conventional pain killers (steroidal and non-steroidal) medication for the long continuous period would give only temporary relief of the condition and might cause Renal failure or chronic Gastro-intestinal tract dysfunctions like Gastritis or Gastric ulcers.

What is osteoporosis?

Osteoporosis is a disease condition characterized by a decrease of bone density, decreasing its strength and resulting in fragile bones. Normal bone is composed of protein, collagen, and calcium all of which give bone its strength. This disorder of the skeleton weakens the bone and results in frequent fractures (breaks) in the bones.

Complications in un-treated or mal-treated:

Osteoporosis can be present without any symptoms for long time osteoporosis doesn't cause symptoms until bone fractures. Moreover, some osteoporotic fractures may escape detection for years when they do not cause symptoms. Therefore, patients may not be aware of their osteoporosis until they suffer a painful fracture. The symptom associated with osteoporotic fractures usually is pain; the location of the pain depends on the location of the fracture, specially the hip-joint fracture.

Osteoporotic patients often develop chronic lower back pain, height curving due to collapse of vertebrae. Elderly patients can develop pneumonia and blood clots in the leg veins that can travel to the lungs causing pulmonary embolism, due to prolonged bed rest.

In the US 44 million people have low bone density.

Risk factors and causes of osteoporosis?

The following are factors that will increase the risk of developing osteoporosis:

Female gender, Thin and small body frame, family history of osteoporosis, Personal history of fracture as an adult, cigarette smoking, Excessive alcohol consumption, Lack of exercise , Diet low in calcium, Poor nutrition and poor general health, mal-absorption (nutrients are not properly absorbed from the gastrointestinal system) from conditions such as, Low estrogen levels in women, low testosterone levels in males, amenorrhea, anorexia nervosa, Chronic inflammation, due to chronic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis or liver diseases, Immobility, such as after a stroke, or from any condition that interferes with walking, hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, hyper-parathyroidism, When vitamin D is lacking in the body.

What is rheumatoid arthritis (RA)?

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune progressive disease that causes chronic inflammation of the joints and potential to cause joint destruction and functional disability. Rheumatoid arthritis can also cause inflammation of the tissue around the joints, as well as in other organs in the body. Because it can affect multiple other organs of the body, rheumatoid arthritis is referred to as a systemic illness and is sometimes called rheumatoid disease.

Rheumatoid arthritis affects the joints, basically the multiple joints in symmetrical pattern. This disease is having the period of flares and remessions. When body tissues are inflamed, the disease is active. When tissue inflammation subsides, the disease is inactive (in remission). Remissions can occur spontaneously or with treatment and can last weeks, months, or years. During remissions, symptoms of the disease disappear, and people generally feel well. When the disease becomes active again (relapse), symptoms return.

When the disease is active, symptoms can include fatigue, loss of energy, lack of appetite, low-grade fever, muscle and joint aches, and stiffness. Muscle and joint stiffness are usually most notable in the morning and after periods of inactivity. Arthritis is common during disease flares. Also during flares, joints frequently become red, swollen, painful, and tender. This occurs because the lining tissue of the joint (synovium) becomes inflamed, resulting in the production of excessive joint fluid (synovial fluid). The synovium also thickens with inflammation (synovitis).

Complications in un-treated or mal-treated:

Chronic rheumatoid inflammation leads to the destruction of the cartilage, bone, and ligaments, causing deformity of the joints. Damage to the joints can occur early in the disease and be progressive. Rheumatoid arthritis being a multi-system auto-immune disorder, it is having some of the mutli-system implications.. Inflammation of the glands of the eyes and mouth can cause dryness of these areas and is referred to as Sjogren’s Syndrome. Rheumatoid inflammation of the lung lining Pleuritis causes chest pain. The lung tissue itself can also become inflamed, scarred, and sometimes nodules of inflammation (rheumatoid nodules) develop within the lungs. Inflammation of the tissue (pericardium) surrounding the heart, called Pericarditis. The rheumatoid disease can reduce the number of red blood cells (anemia) and white blood cells. Decreased white cells can be associated with an enlarged spleen and can increase the risk of infections. Firm lumps under the skin (rheumatoid nodules) can occur around the elbows and fingers where there is frequent pressure. Even though these nodules usually do not cause symptoms, occasionally they can become infected. Nerves can become pinched in the wrists to cause carpal tunnel syndrome. A rare, serious complication, usually with long-standing rheumatoid disease, is blood vessel inflammation Vasculitis. Vasculitis can impair blood supply to tissues and lead to tissue death (necrosis). This is most often initially visible as tiny black areas around the nail beds or as leg ulcers.

Presentl-day conventional medication is very much limited for treatment of rheutoid arthritis. Different steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications are there for reducation of pain and inflammation. Continuous taking of these medication might cause some Renal and GI tract complications. Different Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic Drugs(DMARD) are there which have only temporary effects and potent side effects if taken for long times and Immuno-suppressive drugs are there that can affect the bone marrow and the liver, even causing cirrhosis.

What is sciatica?

Sciatica is pain in the lower extremity resulting from irritation of the sciatic nerve. The pain of sciatica is typically felt from the low back to behind the thigh and radiating down below the knee. The sciatic nerve is the largest nerve in the body and begins from nerve roots in the lumbar spinal cord in the low back and extends through the buttock area to send nerve endings down the lower limb. Sciatica is most commonly a result of a lumbar disc herniation. Any caus of irritation or inflammation of the sciatic nerver can produce the symptoms of sciatica.

Sciatica causes pain, a burning sensation, numbness, or tingling radiating from the lower back and upper buttock down the back of the thigh to the back of the leg.

Complications if un-treated or mal-treated:

Severe sciatica can make walking difficult if not impossible. Sometimes the symptoms of sciatica are aggravated by walking or bending at the waist and relieved by lying down.

Some of the sciatica patients take the pain-killer (analgesic) medications for the long continuous period of time that might cause renal or Gastro-intestinal complications like renal faliure or gastric ulcers.

Female Disease

What is amenorrhea?

Amenorrhea is the medical term for the absence of menstrual periods, either on a permanent or temporary basis. Amenorrhea can be classified as primary or secondary. In primary amenorrhea, menstrual periods have never begun (by age 16), whereas secondary amenorrhea is defined as the absence of menstrual periods for three consecutive.

Primary amenorrhea is most of the time idiopathic (without any perceptable cause) or the cause is most of the time limited to some obstruction or surgical reasons. But in secondary amenorrhea, there are different causes due to the amenorrhea like Pregnancy and Lactation (physiological cause), hypothalamic amenorrhea in this there are different hormonal deficiencies are responsible. Other causes include, extreme weight loss, emotional or physcial stress, rigorous exercise and severe illness. Pre-mature meopause, elevated levels of androgen, and hypo-thyroidism are among the other causes. When a woman would stop taking the oral contraceptive pills, might be without periods for the next 3 months.

Complications if mal-treated or un-treated:

Infertility is a significant complication of amenorrhea for women who desire to become pregnant. Osteopenia (a reduction in bone density) or osteoporosis is a complication of low estrogen levels, which may occur with prolonged amenorrhea. Other than this, amenorrhea due to elevated levels of androgen and hypothyroidism is having its own potent chance of complications.

Present-day conventional treatments are very much limited for the treatment of amenorrhea. For the Primary amenorrhea, there is absolutely no treatment if there is no surgical factor involved. For secondary amenorrhea, the conventional treatment is limited with hormonal replacement therapy or suporting treatment for the underlying disorder that is present. This medications are having only temporary result and is having long-lasting complications.

What are menstrual cramps or dysmenorrhea?

Menstrual cramps, dysmenorrhea, or premenstrual syndrome are pains in the abdominal and pelvic areas that are experienced by a woman as a result of her menstrual period. Severe menstrual cramps can be so painful that they interfere with a woman's regular activities for several days. Menstrual cramps without some particular underlying gynecological problem called Primary dysmenorrhea and when it is related to some specific gynecological cause is known as Secondary dysmenorrhea.

The menstrual cramps happen because the shading of endometrial lining, secretion of prostaglandin and leukotrines. As the endometrial tissues passes through the narrow cervix, it causes pain. Menstrual cramps may be associated with nausea, vomiting, headache, anorexia, sometimes constipation or diarrhea or even low-grad fever.

The causes of secondary dysmenorrhea are, - endometriosis (cells from the uterine lining tare located in other areas of the body), uterine fibroid, adenomyosis (condition in which the uterine cells invade its muscular wall), Pelvic inflammatory disease etc.

What happens if un-treated or mal-treated?

Primary dysmenorrhea or menstrual cramps is the problem which is very common and most of the adolescent girls experience the similar kind of problem and it is self-limiting and depends upon the subjective feeling of patient to patient.

In case of secondary dysmenorrhea it is very important to rule out the cause for the dysmenorrhea. If the cause is not ruled out properly or treated properly then it might cause long time problems like endometriosis can cause infertility, dysfunction uterine bleeding (excessive bleeding or irregular bleeding), and pelvic inflammatory disease might cause might cause fever, general malaise, weakness, chronic and major ill health.

Present-day conventional treatment for dysmenorrhea or painful menstruation is very much limited. For primary dysmenorrhea there are only analgesics or pain killers and NSAID medications are there, which give only temporary relieve and continuous consumption of the same medication might cause long lasting Renal or Gastro-intestinal complications. Some doctors also prescribe the oral contraceptive pills, which might reduce the pain but un-necessary intake of oral contraceptive pills is harmful for the body and it can cause permanent hormonal misbalance. Even some surgical procedures are there for the treatment of dysmenorrhea like D&C (dilatation and curettage), endometrial ablation or even hysterectomy (removal of the uterus).

What is Abnormal menstruation ?

Abnormal menstruation is a flow of blood from vagina that occurs either at the wrong time during the month or in inappropriate amounts. Irregular menstrual bleeding (metrorrhegia), excessive menstrual bleeding (menorrhegia) and scanty or very less menstrual bleeding (oligomenorrhea), these three types of abnormal menstrual bleedings are there.

Causes of different types of abnormal menstruation:

Menorrhegia (excessive vaginal bleeding): The common causes of metrorrhegia are uterine fibroid, endometrial polyps, adenomyosis, intrauterine devices (IUD's), and hypothyroidism. Certain conventional medicines are there which can cause excessive of blood clotting that might cause metrorrhegia.

Metrorrhegia(irregular vaginal bleeding): The common causes of metrorrhegia are growths in the cervix, such as cervical polyps, infections of the uterus (endometritis) and use of birth control pills (oral contraceptives). Ladies at the perimenopausal age may develop irregular vaginal bleeding.
Perimenopause is the time period approaching the menopausal transition. It is often characterized by irregular menstrual cycles, including menstrual periods at irregular intervals and variations in the amount of blood flow. Menstrual irregularities may precede the onset of true menopause (defined as the absence of periods for one year) by several years.
Every woman who thinks she has an irregular menstrual bleeding pattern should think carefully about the specific characteristics of her vaginal bleeding in order to help her doctor evaluate her particular situation. Her doctor will require the details of her menstrual history. Each category of menstrual disturbance has a particular list of causes, necessary testing, and treatment.

Excessively heavy menstrual bleeding (menorrhagia)

Excessively heavy menstrual bleeding, called menorrhagia, is menstrual bleeding of greater than 5 tablespoons per month. This condition occurs in about 10% of women. The most common pattern of menorrhagia is excessive bleeding that occurs in regular menstrual cycles and with normal ovulation.

There are several important reasons that menorrhagia should be evaluated by a doctor. First, menorrhagia can cause a woman substantial emotional distress and physical symptoms, such as severe cramping . Second, the blood loss can be so severe that it causes a dangerously lowered blood count (anemia), which can lead to medical complications and symptoms such as dizziness and fainting. Third, there can be dangerous causes of menorrhagia that require more urgent treatment.

What is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)?

The ovary is one of a pair of reproductive glands in women that are located in the pelvis, one on each side of the uterus. Ovarian cysts are closed, sac-like structures within an ovary that contain a liquid, gaseous, or semisolid substance. The common type of cyst in the ovary is the follicular cyst. Follicle is the normal fluid-filled sac that contains egg, which suggests that the ovum has not got access to go out from ovary to uterus. It had developed in the ovary itself and formed the cyst. In the same manner when several follicles accummulated in the ovary form poly-cystic ovary (PCO). This pathology causes deviation of he normal secretion of the ovarian hormones,which causes different symptoms which is known as Poly-Cystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS).

The principal signs and symptoms of PCOS are related to menstrual disturbances and elevated levels of male hormones (androgens).

Symptoms due to menstrual disturbances:

Delay of normal menstruation-- Primary amenorrhea.
Absence of menstruation for more than 3 months-- Secondary amenorrhea.
Presence of fewer than normal menstrual periods-- Oligomenorrhea.
Menstrual cycles may not be associated with ovulation-- Anovulatory cycles and may result in heavy bleeding.

Symptoms related to elevated androgen levels

Acne, excess hair growth on the body --hirsutism, and pattern hair loss.

Other signs and symptoms of PCOS include:

Obesiy and weight gain, increased insulin level, oily skin, dandruff, infertility, high cholesterol level, and elevated blood pressure.

Gastro-intestinal Tract Disease

What is constipation?

Constipation means hard stool, difficulty passing stools (straining), or a sense of incomplete emptying after a bowel movement.

According to definition of medical science, constipation usually is defined as fewer than three bowel movements per week. Severe constipation is defined as less than one bowel movement per week.

The onset of constipation might be Acute or it can be Chronic. There is another condition where the patient is not able to pass even flatus. This condition is known as Obstinate Constipation.

What causes constipation?

Fundamentally, constipation is due to slow passage of digestive foods through any part of the intestine, but it mostly happens due to not passing of digestive contents in the colon.

Among the proximate causes, there are few conventional medications like, calcium-channel blocking drugs, iron supplements; narcotic pain medications might cause the constipation. Other than this few of the persons are having the habit of controlling the bowel motion, not taking the proper diet rich in fibers, taking too much of non-vegetarian foods, sedentary life-style and lack of exercise are the most important causes. Few persons are taking too much of un-necessary laxatives that is also another cause of constipation; in this case there is a situation happens which is known as colonic inertia where the nerves or muscles of the colon do not work normally.

Few pathological conditions, like hypo-thyroidism, diabetes mellitus, scleroderma, spinal cord disorder, multiple sclerosis, may also cause constipation.

What happens when un-treated or mal-treated:

Constipation is most of the time a subjective phenomenon, its feelings depends from individual to individual. Some persons do not have any problem even that particular person does not defecate for 2-3 days or someone have irritation and anxious if he does not clear his bowels for 1 day only. Gradually this condition might turn up to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The patients have in-effectual urging for stool always, but does not have anything comes out. Chronic constipation or hard stool might lead to piles or fissure due to constant straining. But the problem related to the acute constipation always associated with some underlying factor that has to be ruled out as quickly as possible and to be promptly taken care of.

Modern-day conventional treatment for chronic constipation is very much limited. Apart from different types of laxatives (lubricant laxatives, emollient laxatives, hyper-osmolar laxatives etc), they hardly have any sort of permanent solution for this problem. On the secondary effect of these laxatives, the condition becomes more complicated.

What are hemorrhoids (piles) ?

Hemorrhoids (piles) are masses of tissues within the anal canal that contain blood vessels and the surrounding supporting tissue made up of muscle and elastic fibers. Basically the contents of the hemorrhoids (piles) are blood vessels most of them are branches of arteries, anal mucosa, and fibrous tissues. As the hemorrhoidal blood vessels are mostly supply of arteries, the hemorrhoidal bleeding can be severe.

There are 2 kinds of hemorrhoids (piles). One is internal and another is external. If the hemorrhoid originates at the top (rectal side) of the anal canal it is known as internal hemorrhoid and when it originates at the lower end of the anal canal near the anus, it is known as external hemorrhoid.

Causes of hemorrhoids (piles)?

1.Including inadequate intake of fiber-rich diets
2.Sedentary life-style and lack of exercises.
3.Prolonged sitting on the toilet.
4.Chronic straining to have a bowel movement or constipation. In constipation, with the pulling force of stool, especially when the stool is hard, the hemorrhoidal cushions are being dragged downwards.
5.Old age is another cause where the tonicity of the anal sphincter becomes weak causing this kind of dysfunction very easily.

Symptoms of hemorrhoids (piles):

1.Mostly the internal hemorrhoids are painless and bleeding and external hemorrhoids are painful and non-bleeding. In case of internal hemorrhoids, mostly feeling of fullness will come. Bleeding in internal hemorrhoids may be very severe, as mostly it is an arterial bleeding. In external hemorrhoids sharp shooting pain might arise, which disturbs the person in sitting or walking etc.
2.When the internal hemorrhoids come out from the anal orifices, it is known as prolapsing internal hemorrhoids. 1st degree- Hemorrhoids that bleed but do not prolapse. 2nd degree- Hemorrhoids that prolapse and retract on their own. 3rd degree- Hemorrhoids that prolapse but must be pushed back in by a finger. 4th degree- Hemorrhoids that prolapse and cannot be pushed back in.
3.Pruritus ani- Due to the presence of stool or constant moisture, anal orifices itches, which is known as Pruritus ani.

Complications if un-treated or mal-treated:

The internal hemorrhoids if kept untreated for long periods of time, it might lead to a prolapsing condition where in 4th stage the hemorrhoids can protrude outside of the anal orifice and it get infected or thromosed. This condition requires a prompt surgical intervention. Profuse bleeding may lead to severe anemia. External hemorrhoids may be sometimes strangulated and super-infected with bacteria. The patients may be having the excruciating pain after defecation, pruritus ani (itching at anal canal). The external hemorrhoids can also be associated with anal fissure.

Conventional medicinal treatment is very much limited for hemorrhoids. The treatment options are mostly surgical than medicinal in conventional medicine. However, there are some of the pain-killer medications, or anti-biotic medication which all has only temporary effects and these medicines also have potent side-effects in case taken for long periods of time. There are some non-operative procedures like sclerotherapy, rubber band ligation, heat coagulation, or cryotherapy, which have potent risk factors of super-infection of the lesions.

What is irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)?

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder characterized by chronic abdominal pain, discomfort, bloating, and alteration of bowel habits, whereas there is no detectable organic cause.

There are few disease conditions, like celiac disease, fructose mal-absorption, mild infections of the gut, several parasitic infections like giardiasis, several inflammatory bowel diseases (like Crohn’s disease or Ulcerative colitis), chronic constipation, and chronic functional abdominal pain might present as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

What are the basic fundamentals of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS):

The exact cause of IBS is unknown. The most common theory is that IBS is a disorder of the interaction between the brain and the gastrointestinal tract.

The nervous system that controls the gastrointestinal organs, as with most other organs, contains both sensory and motor nerves. The sensory nerves continuously sense what is happening within the organ and relay this information to nerves in the organ's wall. From there, information can be relayed to the spinal cord and brain. The information is received and processed in the organ's wall, the spinal cord, or the brain. Then, based on this sensory input and the way the input is processed, commands (responses) are sent to the organ over the motor nerves. Two of the most common motor responses in the intestine are contraction or relaxation of the muscle of the organ and secretion of fluid and/or mucus into the organ.

Thus the abnormalities might occur at any point of the total systems such as mild stretching of the small intestine by food may give rise to abnormal sensory signals through spinal cord up to brain where they can perceive it as pain.

Complications if un-treated or mal-treated:

The complications of functional diseases of the gastrointestinal tract are relatively limited. But as the name suggests "irritable", the patients who are having this kind of problem become very irritable psychologically. They become very anxious about the problem that they are suffering from. Before going to anywhere or to any of the new place, they become much tensed. So this problem might complicate their personal and professional lives. Sometimes the patients who suffer from this kind of problem might reduce their intake of foods and they most of the time go without meals so that they have less bouts of defecation, but this might create mal-nutrition and patients most of the time develop calcium or iron deficiency syndrome. When the condition takes the shape of more critical, then the patient might not get their regular sleeps even.

Irritable bowel syndrome is non-treatable according to the conventional treatment as there is no perceptible pathology found.

Hair and Scalp Disease

What is hair loss?

There are many types of scalp hair loss, differ in men and women. Studies show that losing up to 100-150 hairs per day is normal. Human hair naturally grows in three phases: anagen, catagen, and telogen. Anagen is the active or growing phase. Catagen is resting phase and Telogen is falling phase, once the hairs come into the falling phase, hair falls off. Normall about 10-20% of the whole of the scalp hairs stays at the resting phase and these hairs falls off.

Conditions of abnormal Hairloss:

1.Generalised or Diffuse hairloss or Telogen effluvium.
2.Traction Alopecia.
3.Trichotillomania.
4.Tinea Capitis.
5.Androgenic or Androgenetic alopecia (Male-pattern or Female-pattern Baldness).

Complications if un-treated or mal-treated:

Androgenetic Alopecia or Male or Female pattern baldness is irreversible kind of hairloss. Hairs does not come from the bald areas of the scalp. It is a progressive kind of hairloss and if proper treatment is not taken at the proper time then total baldness might happen in a very short period of time.

General or diffuse hairloss or Telogen effluvium is based upon the cause of the ailment. Once the cause is treated effectively by proper medication, the condition will get rectified. Otherwise Telogen Effluvium also take the shape of permanent baldness if persists for long time un-resolved.

Lifestyle change is needed for traction alopecia. Change in the basic cause for Traction is not there condition can be resolved.

The basic cause for Trichotillomania is depression or anxiety. The condition can recover once the root cause of resolved effectively. As the condition is entirely psychogenic, prompt and effective treatment is requrired.

Tinea Capitis is generally acute fungal disease of the scalp. But in untreated for long time or mal-treated by some topical steriodal or anti-fungal application, which the particular patient is hyper-sensitive, might develop permanent damage of the hairfollicles causing Scarring or Cicatrical Alopecia Areata.

What is alopecia areata?

Alopecia areata is a hair-loss condition which usually affects the scalp. It can sometimes affect other areas of the body. Current evidence suggests that alopecia areata is caused by an abnormality in the immune system. This particular abnormality leads to autoimmunity. Biopsies of affected skin show immune cells inside of the hair follicles where they are not normally present. Alopecia areata is sometimes associated with other autoimmune conditions such as allergic disorders, thyroid disease, vitiligo, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, and ulcerative colitis. Sometimes, alopecia areata occurs within family members, suggesting a role of genes and heredity.

What happens if un-treated or mal-treated?

Alopecia areata is most of the time self-limiting. If the alopecia areata spot is increasing in size or the number that means the disease is in aggravating mode and if prompt treatment is not given then alopecia areata can take a shape of Alopecia Totalis, where almost entire scalp hair is lost. The might take the shape of Alopecia Universalis; where almost whole of the body’s hair is lost. These cases are very difficult to cure.

The conventional treatment is very limited for the treatment of Alopecia areata, as it is a auto-immune disorder. Continuous intake of the conventional medication which includes immune-suppressor drugs and systemic or topical steroid might cause short or long-term side effects.

It has been seen that topical or injectable steroids might cause Scarring or Cicatrical Alopecia areata, where the hairfollicles are permanently damaged not having any chance of hair-regrowth.

What is dandruff (Seborrhea)?

It is a very common form of skin eczema that occurs in parts of the body with high oil (sebum) production. Body areas that are commonly affected include the scalp, ears, face, chest, and folds of skin, such as the underarms or the skin below breasts or overhanging abdominal folds.

One common manifestation of seborrhea that affects the scalp is dandruff. Scalp seborrhea can also present as thick, flaky, localized patches of scale. Often, scalp seborrhea doesn't even itch significantly.

Complications if un-treated or mal-treated:

Scalp seborrhea or dandruff if persists for long time might cause temporary to permanent follicular damage resultant into hairloss. Dandruff if persisted for long time might infect to the other parts of the body where ever there is sebaceous gland or hair bearing areas of the body.

Conventional treatment from seborrhea is some anti-fungal or steroidal topical or oral medication, which always gives some temporary result, does not have any permanent solution and disease comes into its original condtion as soon as the action of the medication is over and these drugs are having its own side effects.

Renal Disease

What is a kidney stone?

Kidney stone or renal calculi is a hard, crystalline material formed within the kidney or urinary tract and it often causes severe pain in the abdomen, flank, or groin. The condition which develops in the human body due to kidney stone is termed as nephrolithiasis and stones at any location in the urinary tract is known as urolithiasis.
Kidney stones develop when there is decrease in urine volume,due to dehydration, reduced intake of fluide, strenuous exercises or excess stone-forming substances in the urine. The most common type of kidney stone contains calcium in combination with either oxalate or phosphate ie Calcium oxalate stone or Calcium phosphate stone.Another type of stone is called uric acid or ammino acid cystine stone where the patients might have elevated amount of uric acid level in their blood. Few persons might be having this problem because of tendency of developing this sort of specific kinds of stones or someone is having the genetic predisposition of stone formation.

Obstruction to the flow of urine can also lead to stone formation. In this regard, climate may be a risk factor for kidney stone development, since residents of hot and dry areas are more likely to become dehydrated and susceptible to stone formation. Kidney stones can also result from infection in the urinary tract.

Some different pathological condition can develop the renal calcification like Gout, hypercalciuria (high calcium in urine), hyper-parathyroidism, cystinuria, diabetes mellitus, and high blood pressure.

What are kidney stones symptoms and signs?

Some kidney stones may not produce any symptoms, known as silent stones. Most of the patients suffers from kidney stones would develop the symptoms as follows-

Sudden onset of excruciating, cramping pain in low back or on sides of the abdomen, waxes and wanes in severity, this kind of pain is known as renal colic. The pain might be associated with nausea, vomiting with fever and chills. Sometimes the pain may be accompanied with difficulty in urinating, urinary urgency, penile pain or tesicular pain.

What happens if un-treated or mal-treated ?

Most kidney stones pass through the urinary tract on their own within 48 hours with profuse fluid intake. The most of the problem arises for the problem of silent stones. In case, due to stone, the renal outflow is obstructed, then there may be the chance of hydro-ureter (urine accummulation in renal tract) or hydro-nephrosis (urine accummulation in kidney), which might lead to a condition known as renal failure.

Urinary tract infection (UTI):

Urinary tract infection is the most common type of infection of the body. Urine is normally sterile, usually free of bacteria, viruses and fungus. Infection happens when any micro-organism usually bacteria from the digestive tract enters into urethra and multiply there. Most infections arise from one type of bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli), which usually present in colon. Other than E. coli, chlamydia and mycoplasma may also cause UTIs. Unlike E.coli, chlamydia and mycoplasma may be sexually transmitted diseases.

The symptoms of urinary tract infection depends according to the part of the Urinary tract where the particular bacteria multiply. Like, when the bacteria is affecting the urethra or bladder mucosa creating the condition known as urethritis or cystitis. The symptoms of urethritis or cystitis is almost the same. Like,

1.Frequent urge to urinate and a painful, burning feeling in the area of the bladder or urethra during urination.
2.Women might feel an uncomfortable pressure above the pubic bone, and some men experience a fullness in the rectum.
3.Inspite of urge to urinate, only a small amount of urine is passed.

When the infection had reached to the kidney, it is called Pyelonephritis and the symptoms might include,

1.The urine itself may look milky or cloudy or even reddish if blood is present.
2.It might be associated with high rise of temperature (fever).
3.Pain in back or side below the ribs and nausea or vomiting.

People at risk to develop Urinary Tract Infections (UTI):

1.Persons who suffers from rucurrent renal calculi (kidney stone).
2.Persons suffering from enlarged prostate.
3.Diabetic patients.
4.Females are more prone than male because of the structure of the genital tract.
5.Persons with multiple sex partners.
6.Female using IUDs for birth control, like diaphragm, copper-T etc.
7.Persons with poor immunity and ladies who have to use unhygienic public toilets.
8.Less water or fluid consumption.

What happens if un-treated or mal-treated?

Acute Urinary tract infection (UTI) is very frequent disease condition for the females and easily treated by the medication and proper management. But the problem arises when it occures repeated times for the immno-compromised persons and for those who does not care for their personal hygiene. Sometimes when the infection progressed upto the kidney (in case of pyelonephritis) the disease can turn into some grievious state and requires a prompt medical interventions. In case of negligence, it might convert into Renal Failure.

According to the conventional treatment, only some broad spectrum anti-biotics are there to control the infection, but there are no treatment to stop the recurrent urinary tract infection.

Respiratory Tract Disease

What is Allergic Rhinitis?

Rhinitis means irritation of the nose. Symptoms of Allergic Rhinitis include nasal congestion, a clear runny nose, sneezing, nose and eye itching, and excess tear production in the eyes. Postnasal dripping of clear mucus frequently causes a cough. Loss of the sense of smell is common, and loss of taste sense occurs occasionally.There are lots of allergens (by food or in the air) in the environment, which when gets access to the human body, there is one particular type of antibody known as IgE fight against these allergic susbstan -ces(allergens).During this fight, one special cell called mast cells are injured, which releases histamine causing irritation resulting itching, swellling, and fluid leaking from cells. Sometimes might lead to lung and thoat tightening as is found in asthma and loss of voice.

Complications of Allergic Rhinitis if mal-treated or un-treated:

Allergic Rhinitis when gets into the severe condition, may develop chronic sinusitis and Allergic Bronchitis or Asthma. In the severe condition of allergic rhinitis, nose bleeding may occur. Eye itching, redness, and excess tears in the eyes frequently accompany the nasal symptoms. The eye symptoms are referred to as Allergic Conjunctivitis (inflammation of the whites of the eyes). These allergic symptoms often interfere with one's quality of life and overall health.

Present day conventional method of treatment is very limited for Allergic Rhinitis. There is prolific usage of anti-allergics or anti-histaminics, de-congestants, NSAIDs, corticosteroids, and anti-biotics, according to the symptoms similarity or severity of the disease conditions. Continuous usage of anti-allergic medications can cause loss of memory, lack of energy, lathergy. The patient gets addicted to the anti-allergic medications, these medicines are having only short time relief and the under-lying pathology is getting aggravated gradually.

What is Asthma?

Asthma is a chronic inflammation of the bronchial tubes (airways) that causes swelling and narrowing (constriction) of the airways. Asthma causes a narrowing of the breathing airways, which interferes with the normal movement of air in and out of the lungs. Asthma involves only the bronchial tubes and does not affect the air sacs or the lung tissue. The narrowing that occurs in asthma is caused by three major factors: inflammation, bronchospasm, and hyperreactivity. The result is difficulty breathing. The asthma patient presents with shortness of breath, wheezing, coughing, and chest tightness.

Causes or stimulants of acute asthma attack:

Different allergens like, seasonal pollens, dust mites, molds, pets, and insect parts, foods, such as fish, egg, peanuts, nuts, and soya. Other than this different medical conditions like, - common viral colds, bronchitis, and sinusitis. Different drugs eg. aspirin, NSAID, beta-blockers. Tobacco smoke, pollution or environmental dusts.

The symptoms of asthma vary from person to person and in any individual from time to time. It is important to remember that many of these symptoms can be subtle and similar to those seen in other conditions. All of the symptoms mentioned below can be present in other respiratory, and sometimes, in heart conditions. This potential confusion makes identifying the settings in which the symptoms occur and diagnostic testing very important in recognizing this disorder.

Complications if un-treated or Mal-treated:

There is no such effective treatment in conventional method of treatment apart from bronchodialator medication where the disease is not being cured only the effect of the disease is temporary suppressed, when the body would again have the access of the allergens and when the body’s vitality is compromised the again the attack will be there.

Sometimes the asthma might be super-infected by some bacterial or viral infections causing acute bronchitis where the patients is that patient is being given anti-biotics or systemic steroids, which have its own side effects. Sometimes the disease condition develop to the extent that patient does not respond to so called bronchodialators that condition is known as Status Asthmaticus require immediate emergency care. Chronic Cor-pulmonale is also a condition where the chronic asthmatic patient might develop congestive cardiac faliure.

What is Bronchitis?

Bronchitis describes inflammation of the bronchial tubes (inflammation = itis). The inflammation causes swelling of the lining of these breathing tubes, narrowing the tubes and promoting secretion of inflammatory fluid.

Acute bronchitis describes the inflammation of the bronchi usually caused by a viral infection, although bacteria and chemicals also may cause acute bronchitisAcute bronchitis is as mentioned above, is a cough that begins suddenly usually due to a viral infection involving the larger airways. Viral upper airway infections, commonly known as colds often involve the throat, causing phayngitis, nasal passages, known as rhinitis and at times the larynx causing laryngitis resulting in a diminished hoarse voice. Symptoms can include a runny nose, nasal stuffiness, and sore throat. Risk factors for acute bronchitis is Smoking, patients of Asthma, patients allergic to airborne chemicals.

Chronic bronchitis classically described as a daily cough with sputum production for at least three months, two years in a row.

Complications if un-treated or mal-treated:

Acute bronchitis usually resolves spontaneously (about 2-3 weeks) with supportive care. In patients who have underlying lung conditions like COPD or asthma, the inflammation can cause lung tissue to function improperly. Pneumonia or infection of the lung tissue itself may develop.

Conventional treatment for acute or chronic bronchitis is short-term steroid therapy, with anti-pyeretic, anti-allergic , or anti-biotic medications. These medications are having only short-term effect as regards as the improving the condition is concerned and do have some potent side effects if taken for long continued periods of time.

What is laryngitis?

The larynx is voice box that allows us to speak, shout, whisper, and sing. Inflammation of the voice box is Laryngitis. There are 2 different types of laryngitis, Acute and chronic. Hoarseness and loss of voice is the primary symptom of laryngitis. In case of infective laryngitis, patients mostly present with symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection or common cold, but in that case also the following symptoms should present like, dry cough, sore throat, fever, swollen lymph nodes, dysphagia or pain with swallowing and feeling of fullness in the throat.

What happens when un-treated or mal-treated ?

In children with infected laryngitis may develop difficulty in breathing. In cases of vocal cord paralysis, the swallowing mechanism may also be affected. The food particles may enter the larynx and lungs leading to coughing. This process can also lead to pneumonia. Chronic laryngitis when caused by the excess usage of alcohol, smoking, or excess of coughing might prolong for more than 3 weeks. Most of the time the acute laryngitis, if un-treated or mal-treated, develop lower respiratory tract infection like chronic bronchitis and pneumonia can develop.Modern-day conventional treatment for laryngitis is very limited. There are some NSAIDs, anti-biotics, steroidal treatment is there, which is having only for the short time relief of the condition followed by coming back of the original status when the action of the medication is over and these medicine if taken for long time, injudiciously, might lead to some serious complications of Gastro-intestinal tract or urinary system.

What is sore thoat ?

Sore throat is mostly happen due to the viral or bacterial infection of the throat. Most common viruses that causes the sore throat is mononucleosis and the flu. Other than this there are different bacterias which cause the sore throat. There will be some amount of dry hacking cough and acute and fulminant type of sore throat always present with fever. The children might present with swelling of the neck gland, tonsillitis, symptoms of upper respiratory tract inflammation (URI) like low-to-high grade fever, body ache, malaise, watery nasal discharge, stuffy nose. The child may become very cranky and irritable.

What happens when un-treated or mal-treated?

Sorethroat when it is un-treated for the long time it might turn into lower respiratory tract infection causing pneumonia and bronchitis. In case of acute fulminant type of sore throat, the patient may develop some viremia or bacteremia where the patient might be presenting with some acute high rise of temperature, vomiting, anorexia that might lead to mal-nutrition, weight loss. The acute pharyngitis might lead to the chronic form where the patient would be having the repeated attack of acute pharyngitis.

Present-day conventional treatment includes some anti-pyeretic, anti-allergic, anti-biotic medication and in some of the un-controlled cases the condtion may require systemic steroidal treatments as well. But, all these medications are having only some short-term action and the condition of the disease comes into the original condition as soon as the effect of the medication is over. Other than this, these medications are having its own potent systemic side-effects.

What is Sinusitis?

Sinus infection or Sinusitis occurs when pathogenic organism (virus, bacteria, or fungus) grows within sinus and causes blockage of the sinus opening. Mucus and pus which accumulates inside of the sinus often drained out causing relieve of the sinus discomfort. Sometimes more than one sinus is affected and blocking of sinus opening causes discomfort and pain. Inflammation of the air cavities within the passages of the nose (paranasal sinuses) is referred to as sinusitis. Sinusitis can be caused by infection, but can also be caused by allergy and irritation of the sinuses.

Sinusitis is classified, based on the time span of the problem like Acute Sinusitis, where there is less than 30 days duration of infection, sub-acute sinusitis as being over 1 month but less than 3 months duration of infection, chronic sinusitis of more than 3 months duration.

Presentation of sinusitis would differ according to the conditions, like in a case of acute sinusitis, the patient will come with pain over sinuses, heavyness of head, facial tenderness, and fever with general weakness. Sub-acute or chronic sinusitis cases will be having history of repeated sinusitis, constant heavyness, history of allergy might be there, sore throat or cough might be present and discharge of foul smelling, thick, greenish-yellow mucus might be present.

What happens if un-treated or mal-treated?

Acute Sinusitis is always having the doubts of turning into chronic from if un-treated or mal-treated.

While serious complications is possible for sinus infection to cause a direct extension of infection into the brain through a sinus wall, creating a life-threatening emergency eg. meningitis or brain abscess. In addition, other adjacent structures can become infected and develop problems, such as osteomyelitis of bones of bones in the skull and infection around the eye that is called orbital cellulitis.

Whereas, modern day conventional treatment is very limited for acute or chronic sinusitis. There is anti-biotics, anti-pyeritic, and NSAIDs. Sometimes in intricated cases different steroidal medication might be given, which have only short-acting action and have some potent side-effects if taken for long periods of time.

What is Tonsillitis ?

Acute tonsillitis is an infection of the tonsils caused by one of several possible types of bacteria or viruses. Acute tonsillitis is characterized by either the sudden or gradual onset of a sore throat which is usually associated with fever. The patient may stop swallowing saliva, complain of ear pain with swallowing, and have bad breath.

Tonsils and Adenoids:

The tonsils and adenoids are composed of tissues that are similar to the lymph nodes or glands found in the neck or other parts of the body.

What is the purpose of the tonsils and adenoids?

The tonsils and adenoids are to assist the body in its defense against incoming bacteria and viruses by helping the body form antibodies.

Complications if Un-treated or Mal-treated:

Tonsillitis might take a chronic shape if there is any sort of persistent infections of the tonsils. Repeated infections may cuase the formation of small pockets in the tonsils which harbour bacteria. This causes the foul breath. Peritonsillar abscess is another complications, if un-treated , the infection can spread deep in the neck causing life-threatening complications and airway obstruction. Obstruction to breathing by enlarged tonsils and adenoids may cause snoring and disturbed sleep, might cause sleep apnea and restless sleep, bedwetting, mood changes, excessive sleepiness, and even heart problems. Chronic mouth breathing from large tonsils and adenoids causes improper alignment of the teeth (malocclusion). Chronic enlargement and infection of the adenoids may lead to infection of the air passages around the nose (sinusitis) or nasal drainage/obstruction, and/or may affect the eustachian tube of the ear, leading to chronic ear infections.

Conventional treatment for Acute tonsillitis is anti-biotics, anti-allergics, anti-pyeritics, NSAIDs and systemic steroids where required. These medications only gives a temporary relief and having its own potent side effects if given for long time.

The treatment of chronic tonsillitis is very limited according to the conventional system of medications, as they always prefer for tonsillectomy with adnoidectomy, but tonsils and adenoids being the first line of defence of human body against bacteria and viruses this surgery hastens the chance the repeated Gastro-intestinal and Respiratory infections of the patients.

Skin Disease

What is acne or pimples ?

After puberty, when the main male hormone testosterone becomes active, the oil glands or the sebaceous glands come into life. Acne is is not just a problem for teenagers, it can affect people from ages 10 through 40. It is not unusual for women, in particular, to develop acne in their mid- to late-20s.

    Grades of Acne -
  • Grade I - Whiteheads and blackheads.
  • Grade II - Papulo-pustular (small painful pus-forming boils). This happens when the acne is infected with bacteria.
  • Grade III - Nodulo-cystic (hard and painful nodules and cysts).

It mostly happens over the face, chest, and over the back, where there are lots of sebaceous glands are present.

What happens when un-treated or mal-treated ?

Acne when un-treated and gets complicated can develop large nodules. Sometimes one infected acne can give rise to pain and even development of fever, general weakness might be associated with the lesions. The important factor for the acne or pimple is when it goes away, it leaves a scar or the hyper-pigmentation marks behind. If it happens over the face then there is pits or scar tissue formation causes disfigurement of the face. There are medication in the latest development of the conventional medicine like, isotretinoin, which slows down oil glands for a while; they come back to life later.

Conventional treatment for acne is very limited. The most popularly used cleanser for acne is benzoyl peroxide which gives only for the temporary relief and it causes red and scaly allergic skin lesions in some patients as side effects. In some intricated cases of acne conventional method of treatments are to give the oral steriods and anti-biotics, which also have its limited action only for the short time and having its potent side effects.

What are corns and calluses?

Corns and calluses are annoying painful thickenings of skin in areas of pressure. This thickening occurs as a natural defense mechanism that strengthens the skin in areas of friction or pressure. Corns and calluses occur on parts of the feet and sometimes the fingers. It might be painful to walk on, even when they are small.

What happens if un-treated or mal-treated?

Corns are itself very painful. Sometimes due to having the immense amount of pain the gait of the person may be defective and that might cause some other complications ,like sprain or twist of the joints and sometimes these corns gets infected with the bacterias causing infected corns, which may lead to some severe systemic infection and resulting in high rise in temperature, pain, and immobility . In these kinds of cases, corns might require to be removed surgically.

The modern-day conventional treatment for corns are very much limited. Salicylic acid is being used, which acts as keratolytic to desolve the tissues of corns and also the dead tissues of the corns; but this kind of medications are having only temporary effect. Effect is there only for the single corn and it is also having some serious side-effects in case of given for the old patients with very slow and poor circulation and with diabetes mellitus.

What is eczema or Dermatitis?

Eczema or Dermatitis is a general term for many types of skin inflammation. Eczema is not contagious. There are different types of eczema and the symptoms of eczema depends upon the types of eczema.

Types of eczema:

  • Atopic Dermatitis
  • Contact Dermatitis
  • Seborrheic Dermatitis
  • Nummular Dermatitis
  • Neurodermatitis
  • Stasis Dermatitis
  • Dyshidrotic Dermatitis

What happens to Eczema if un-treated or mal-treated?

Basically, eczema is a sterile disease condition. Most of the time it is not being infected by any micro-organism. But as in eczema or dermatitis, the underlying skin is being surfaced, it becomes prone to be affected by bacteria, fungas or viruses. Thus if the eczema is being infected by any of these micro-organism, it becomes more complicated.

The conventional treatment for Eczema or Dermatitis is very limited. By this kind of treatment only for the time-being disease can be controlled, like if itching is severe oral anti-histamines or anti-allergics are used or some sedative is being used. In some cases a course of corticosteroids is prescribed to control the acute outbreak of eczema. Long-term use of these medications can develop unpleasant and potentially harmful side-effects. Few of the very intricated cases of dermatitis or eczema might be treated with some immuno-suppressive medication in conventional system, which have very severe side-effects if used for long time.

What are herpes simplex infections?

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) can cause infections that affect the mouth, the face, the genitals, the skin, the buttocks, and the anal area. This article will concentrate on non-genital herpes. Many people acquire the virus and have no symptoms. For others, painful blisters appear near the area where the virus entered the body. Typically, the blisters heal completely but reappear at some point in the future when least expected (or desired). In between attacks, the virus resides deep in the roots of the nerves that supply the involved area.

When herpes simplex lesions appear in their most common location, around the mouth and lips, people often refer to them as "cold sores" and "fever blisters."

What causes cold sores?

There are two types of HSV, type I and type II. In general, type I, also known as herpes labialis, causes infections above the waist, most commonly as oral "cold sores." Type II infections occur mainly below the waist, leading to genital herpes. However, both types of HSVs are capable of infecting the skin at any location on the body.

Herpes infections, no matter where they occur first, have a tendency to recur in more or less the same place. Such recurrences may happen often (for example, once a month) or only occasionally (for example, once or twice a year).

How do cold sores spread?

Infections caused by HSV are contagious. The virus is spread from person to person by kissing, by close contact with herpetic lesions, or even from contact with apparently normal skin that is shedding the virus. Infected saliva is a common means of virus transmission. People are most contagious when they have active blister-like sores. Once the blisters have dried and crusted over (within a few days), the risk of contagion is significantly lessened. However, a person infected with HSV can pass it on to another person regardless of the presence or absence of symptoms. This is because the virus is sometimes shed in saliva even when sores are not present. Despite popular myth, it is almost impossible to catch herpes (cold sores) from surfaces, towels, or washcloths.

What is psoriasis?

Psoriasis is a non-contagious, chronic skin condition that causes rapid skin cell reproduction resulting in red, dry patches of thickened skin. Psoriasis commonly affects the skin of the elbows, knees, and scalp. It has a variable course, periodically improving and worsening. The immune system is thought to play a major role in psoriasis.

Types of Psoriasis:

The manifestations of psoriasis depends upon the type of psoriasis.

  • Psoriasis Vulgaris: Commonly found psoriasis. Looks like red or pink areas of thickened, raised and dry skin.
  • Guttate Psoriasis: It starts with small drop like spots or papules and after that it colasces with each other forming a big patch.
  • Sebo-Psoriasis: This type of lesions occur over the sebaceous areas over the body. Psoriasis persists with seborrhea.

Complications of Psoriasis if un-treated or mal-treated:

Psoriasis is having certain general systemic involvement in case it prolonged for long time. In about 10-35% of the patients who suffer from psoriasis might develop psoriatic arthritis. Psoriatic arthritis is an inflammatory, destructive form of arthritis and is treated with medications to stop the disease progression. Psoriasis can also affect the nails causing pitting over the nails and dystrophy of the nails are there, known as onycholysis.

Modern-day conventional treatment is very limited for psoriasis. According to the conventional system of medication, there is no proper treatment for the psoriasis patients. There are few topical corticosteroids and topical immuno-suppressor drugs, which give only temporary relief followed by more aggravated form of disease condition on withdrawing the medications. When it is not controlled by the topical medication, oral immunosuppressor medications are being given, which have severe side effects if taken for the long periods of time and have its own potent withdrawal effect, if withdrawn suddenly.

What are Urticaria or Hives?

The Urticaria or Hives are red, itchy, and raised areas of skin appear it varyig shapes and sizes. Urticaria occur anywhere on the body. It is actually hypersensitivity or allergic reaction of the body upon the skin. Most of the time urticaria comes and goes rapidly. Sometimes urticaria might accompanied with swelling deeper layer in the skin called angioedema with swelling of lips or eyes.

Hives or Urticaria are caused by certain allergen (antigen) present in food,medication, or insect bites, which our body is hypersensitive to. Naturally, against these allergen or antigen our body produces lots of anti-bodies. As a product of these fight, body produces lots of histamine released from mast cells. Histamine irritates the nerves causing itching or buring and causes fluide leak from local blood vessels, leading to swelling in the skin.

What happens if un-treated or mal-treated ?

Most of the ordinary urticaria are self-limiting that means the condition resolve automatically after some times. But the most important thing with ordinary urticaria is it comes and goes repeatedly irrespective of any specific time, causing irritation and uncomfortable feeling. Ordinary Urticaria might lead to chronic urticaria if it persists(daily comes and goes) for more than 6 weeks.Some of the urticaria which is associated with angioedema might lead to difficulty of breathing (dyspnoea) or difficulty of swallowing (dysphagia). This condition is called anaphylactic shock, which migh lead to some life-threatening complications.

Present-day conventional treatment for urticaria is very limited. The most commonly used oral treatments are anti-histamines, which help oppose the effects of the histamine leaked by mast cells. As this medication is only eliminating the effect of the disease not the cause, naturally the effect is limited and as a side-effect of this medication, patients suffer from drowsiness and sometimes loss of memorry. Now-a-days, there is a combination of sedative and anti-histamines are there, which causes more side-effects and even serious withdrawal effects when one stops using these medicines. The severe cases of urticaria, might be tackled with some oral steroids, which have more serious side-effects if taken for long time.

What is vitiligo ?

Vitiligo or pigmentation disorder is a auto-immune disorder (where person’s immune system reacts against body’s own organ or tissues) in which melanocytes (the cells that make pigment) in the skin are destroyed. Vitiligo generally appears in one of three patterns:

  • Focal pattern -- depigmentation limited to one or only a few areas.
  • Segmental pattern -- depigmented patches that develop on one side of the body.
  • Generalized pattern -- the most common pattern. Depigmentation occurs symmetrically on both sides of the body.

In addition to white patches on the skin, people with vitiligo may have premature graying of the scalp hair, eyelashes, eyebrows, and beard. Vitiligo may also be hereditary. It can run in families. When vitiligo is in spreading stage it may very suddenly change from Focal to Segmental or Generalised.

What happens if un-treated or mal-treated ?

Vitiligo does not lead to a long-time complications as regards to affecting the systemic or vital organs are concerned. But the focal vitiligo always can turn into segmental or generalized vitiligo. In some of the cases the vitiligo can be associated with some other auto-immune systemic diseases like hypothyroidism, pernicious anemia, uvieitis, type- II diabetes mellitus etc. The most important problem of vitiligo is social stigma. Vitiligo is basically a benign disorder but its social implications are enormous.

Modern-day conventional treatment is very limited for vitiligo. In fact apart from some topical and oral steroidal therapy, there is no other therapy is available, which also can produce lot of side effects if continued for long time, like obesity, hyper-cholesterolemia etc. There is another therapy which is known as PUVA, which might produce the skin cancer in some of the patients.

What are common warts?

Common warts are local growths in the skin that are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Although they are considered to be contagious, it is very common for just one family member to have them. In addition, they often affect just one part of the body (such as the hands or the feet) without spreading over time to other areas.

What are some types of common warts?

  • There is the familiar type of dome-shaped warts on the backs of fingers, toes, and knees.
  • Plantar warts are found on the bottom of the foot. (The "plantar" part of the foot. These are not "Planter's warts.")
  • Flat ("plane") warts may arise on the face, legs, and other parts of the body, often in large numbers.
  • Periungual warts are warts around or under the nail.
  • Filiform warts typically appear as a single long stalk, often on the face.

Psychological Disorder

What is depression?

Depression is a common mental disorder that presents with depressed mood, loss of interest or pleasure, feelings of guilt or low self-worth, disturbed sleep or appetite, low energy, and poor concentration. These problems can become chronic or recurrent and lead to substantial impairments in an individual's ability to take care of his or her everyday responsibilities. At its worst, depression can lead to suicide, a tragic fatality associated with the loss of about 850 000 lives every year.

Depression is a very common disorder and affecting around 121 million of people worldwide. It is among the leading causes of disability worldwide.

Evolution of Depression:

Our life is full of different ups and downs. We all experience episodes of stress, unhappiness, sadness, or grief. We feel sad and depressed often when a loved one dies or we suffer a personal tragedy or difficulty such as divorce, loss of a job, or death of a loved one, we feel depressed. Most of us are able to cope with these and other types of stressful events. Within some period of time, most of us are able to return to our normal activities. But when these feelings of sadness and other symptoms make hard for us to get through the day and when the symptoms last for more than a couple of weeks in a row, we may have what is called the Clinical depression.

Some people believe that depression is "normal" in people who are elderly, have other health problems, have setbacks or other tragedies, or have bad life situations. On the contrary, clinical depression is always abnormal.

What happens if un-treated of mal-treated?

The biggest barriers to overcoming depression are recognition of the condition and seeking appropriate treatment. Most of the patients who are having depression do not wish to visit with the doctor and they do not consider themselves unhealthy. Or the problem depression may be exfoliated in a different manner, like some continuous ill-health without any perceptible pathology, multi-system pain or un-easiness etc. Secondly, till date our society is not fully educated about the mental diseases, thus the patients feel lonely, no-one understands their problem, society is not supporting them and most of the time these conditions remain unnoticed for long time. Ultimately, the condition might present with Psychotic Depression or Major Depressive Disorder, which is very difficult to cure.

Our modern-day conventional system of medicine is very limited for the treatment and cure for depression cases. There are different types of anti-depressant medications; all of them are having instant effect and long term side-effect of the same kind of medication. The patient becomes very much dependent with the medication for their whole life. Some patients who do not response to the oral medications, are given Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT), which is having its dangerous side-effects.

What is Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD or AD/HD or ADD) refers to a chronic bio-behavioral developmental disorder that initially manifests in childhood and is characterized by hyperactivity, impulsivity, and/or inattention.These symptoms (hyperactivity, impulsivity, and/or inattention) can lead to difficulty in academic, emotional, and social functioning. This disorder is one of the most common disorders of childhood.

Facts:

1.It is affecting about 3-5% of children globally.
2.About 2-16% of school going children are having the same problem.
3.It is diagnosed 2-4 times as frequently in boys as in girls.
4.It is found that the symptoms persists 30-50% of those individuals diagnosed in childhood continuing to have symptoms into adulthood.

effects and continuous intake of medication does not case any sort of addiction to the particular medication.

Complications if un-treated or mal-treated:

The most common problem with ADHD patients is that both of these problems remain un-noticed and un-diagnosed for long time, because of the ignorance of the family members. This disease causes major problem to the personality and mental makeup of the children. In most of the patients this problem persists till the adulthood. This disorder leads to difficulty in academic, emotional, and social functioning of the children. This might turn a child into non-performer and ultimately child’s academic career can be severely affected with this disorder, but physically that particular child might not have any pathological signs or symptoms. ADHD may accompany with other disorders such as anxiety or depression. In the latest research and development it has been found that depression in ADHD appears to be increasingly prevalent in children as they get older.

Present-day conventional treatment for ADHD is very limited and there is no specific treatment of ADHD in the conventional mode of treatment. There are few stimulant medication like methylphenidate and there are few non-stimulant medications such as atomoxetine are there but these medications are not having any permanent term of effect. These medicines are also having some potent side effects if taken for long periods of time.

Male Sexual Disorder

What is Erectile Dysfunction (ED) or Impotence?

Erectile dysfunction (ED) or impotence is the inability to achieve or sustain an erection for satisfactory sexual activity.

Some men have a total inability to achieve an erection, others have an inconsistent ability to achieve an erection, and still others can sustain only brief erections. Many men also are reluctant to discuss erectile dysfunction with their doctors due to embarrassment, and thus the condition is undiagnosed.

Misconception related to Erectile Dysfunction (ED) or Impotence:

Now-a-days, there are lots of misconceptions related to the erectile dysfunction. This presents even among the educated persons. Life-style of present day is very hectic and people do not have mental peace. Stress, depression, and anxiety due to personal or professional reasons might cause lack of libido or lack of sexual urge or pre-mature ejaculation. People most of the time confuse lack of libido or pre-mature ejaculation with the erectile dysfunction. Gradually, this sort of misperception might lead to another complication which is known as performance anxiety, where men become much tensed before going for the sexual activity and causing improper erection or pre-mature ejaculation. Thus there is a continuous vicious circle of the problem created, which might lead to un-necessary social complications. This type of complication cause more anxiety, depression, and stress.

Few Pathological conditions which might cause erectile dysfunction or Impotence:

There are few specific pathological conditions, which can lead to Erectile Dysfunction, such as, aging, diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure or hypertension, different cardiovascular diseases, smoking, nerve or spinal cord damage, low testosterone levels, different substance abuse like heroin, cocaine etc, alcoholism, and different anti-depressant medications.

Complication if un-treated or mal-treated:

In India, Erectile Dysfunction more than a physiological problem, it is a social stigma. Many couples who are suffering from this problem does not want to discuss it with the doctor, causing internal family complications and most of the time it is found that it is not the Erectile Dysfunction, it is something else. So, it remains un-treated most of the time.

In case, it is purely Erectile Dysfunction, the conventional system of medicine does not have proper medication for this problem. There are few medications like sildenafil, vardenafil, tadalafil, but these medicines are having short time benefit and there are some potent side-effects of each of this medication. Regular or continuous taking of these medication might usher lots of health hazards and the patient becomes dependent to such type of medications for lifelong.

In India, there are lot of quack practitioners who are in the name of “Gupt Rog” do the fraudulent practice and lots of persons are being cheated by them.

Radio Therapy

Radiation therapy can also damage your healthy cells near the treatment area along with cancer cells and produces side effects which kills the patients more rapidly rather than cancer.

• Radiation therapy is the cancer treatment in this treatment highly concentrated radiation beams are used to kill cancer cells.

• Radiation therapy damages the cancer cells by destroying the genetic code that controls cell growth and division.

• More than half of all people with cancer receive radiation as part of their cancer treatment.

• Radiation therapy is given many ways such as before and after surgery to restrict the tumor growth, in combination with chemotherapy and in advance cancer to suppress the symptoms.

• Side effects of radiation therapy depend on which part of body is being exposed to radiation and how much radiation is used .

Common side effects of radiation therapy are :

• Fatigue is the most common side effect of radio therapy as patient feels tired and exhausted all the time.

• Lack of appetite

• Constant nausea and vomiting

• Diarrhoea

• Dryness of mouth and altered taste

• People get soreness or blisters in the area being treated

• Hair loss in the area being treated

• Difficult breathing

• Infertility in both males and female patients

• People get dryness ,itching, blistering or peeling of the treated skin area

• Poor bladder control

• Changes in menstruation

• Most important effect of radio therapy is alteration in mood , difficult concentration ,depression and despair makes the patient more vulnerable for which he might need frequent counseling session.

Homeopathy can be your best friend during and after the radio therapy sessions :

Homeopathy helps to stimulate the body’s own curative powers for self healing and renewal and bring the patients to higher level of health .Homeopathy is the safest and most gentle treatment among the all other conventional treatments even this has been considered safe for infants and pregnant ladies.

As homeopathic medicines are prepared from natural substances and proved on healthy human beings which work gently on constitution and does not have any side effects on human body.

The homeopathic consultant treats the whole person believing that all the symptoms are connected and important and selects the most suitable medicine.

Homeopathy can treat the side effects of chemo-radio therapy in the most gentle way and improve the quality of life in the cancer patients.